Northern Europe

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Northern Europe refers geographically to the northern part of Europe, or in a narrower sense, to the cultural grouping of the Nordic countries, Baltic countries, and sometimes also the British Isles, especially Scotland. Greenland, which is geographically part of North America, forms one of the Nordic countries (and is politically part of the Kingdom of Denmark) and therefore may be included in Northern Europe by some definitions.

Although no definitive borders or definition exists, geographically, Northern Europe may be considered to consist approximately of all of Europe above the 52nd parallel north; which includes (from west to east) most or all of: Iceland, the Republic of Ireland, the Isle of Man, the United Kingdom, the Faroe Islands, the Netherlands, northern Germany, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus and northwest Russia. However, narrower definitions may also be used based on other geographical factors, such as climate and ecology, while a broader definition includes the area north of the Alps.

While Northern Europe partly overlaps with Northwestern, Northeastern, and Central Europe, it is rarely considered to directly border Southern Europe. Countries which are central-western (such as Belgium), central-central (such as Austria), or central-eastern (such as Poland) are usually considered part of neither Northern nor Southern Europe.

Notable geographical features of Northern Europe include the North European Plain in the mid-north of Europe, the Fennoscandian Peninsula in the far-north, Baltic plain, and the British Isles in the northwest